Science method – Scientific Library http://www.scientific-library.net/ Wed, 08 Jun 2022 12:04:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://www.scientific-library.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/cropped-icon-32x32.png Science method – Scientific Library http://www.scientific-library.net/ 32 32 LETTER: Dissatisfied with the application of the scientific method | Letters to the Editor https://www.scientific-library.net/letter-dissatisfied-with-the-application-of-the-scientific-method-letters-to-the-editor/ Wed, 08 Jun 2022 12:04:00 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/letter-dissatisfied-with-the-application-of-the-scientific-method-letters-to-the-editor/

The Minnesota Department of Education uses the National Academy of Sciences’ “Framework for K-12 Science Education” to develop its standards. How do they prove that the age of the earth is greater than 4 billion years? ESS1.C. says, “Radioactive decay lifetimes and the isotopic content of rocks provide a means of dating rock formations and thus fixing the geologic time scale.” (page 178) They don’t go into detail on how it works.

In 2019, I asked the Minnesota Geological Survey how they knew the rocks were 3.6 million years old, which they reference on a bronze plaque in Ramsey Park in Redwood Falls.

They sent me two geochronology papers with extensive details on the use of high precision equipment (i.e. high resolution sensitive ion microprobe) with various techniques to determine age via the interpretation of the isotopic ratios in the zircon crystals in the granitic rock sample.

Then I asked how they knew:

1. The rock formation has remained a closed system throughout its history.

2. The initial concentration of the parent or daughter isotope.

3. Decay rates have not changed over billions of years.

4. All parent and daughter isotopes are evenly distributed in the rock formation.

I received a reply saying that geochronology tends to be built on multiple assumptions.

But multiple hypotheses cannot be confirmed by the scientific method and should not be presented as “facts” and cast in bronze for the indoctrination of the general public.

Geochronology was used to analyze lava rock from Mount Ngauruhoe in New Zealand known to be 60 years old; the various isotopic methods have resulted in dates ranging from 270,000 to 3.9 billion years ago.

If the earth was billions of years old, then its magnetic field should be gone by now, and we would be unprotected from harmful radiation. If we extrapolate the rate of decay of the field backwards, the earth would have been torn apart by intense magnetism only 10,000 years ago. Some of the planets have a similar situation.

The Minnesota Department of Education and the National Academy of Sciences need to follow the scientific method and give students a more honest assessment of this “Earth Age” science subject.

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Scientific News | Research: Using a new cell delivery method to help cells adhere https://www.scientific-library.net/scientific-news-research-using-a-new-cell-delivery-method-to-help-cells-adhere/ Tue, 07 Jun 2022 17:50:27 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/scientific-news-research-using-a-new-cell-delivery-method-to-help-cells-adhere/

Washington [US], Jun 7 (ANI): According to the results of research conducted by the College of Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, cell therapies have long been considered an alternative treatment option for patients with various diseases caused by organs and tissues. heart failure, including heart attack, diabetes, corneal blindness and cystic fibrosis. Although excellent in theory, in practice these therapies have limited clinical success in many applications due to low cell viability after injection, as well as poor retention at the injection site and graft. in damaged tissue.

Ongoing research by BME’s Rachelle Palchesko and Adam Feinberg explores the use of a new method of cell delivery to help cells stay where they’re needed most.

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More than 50,000 corneal transplant procedures are performed in the United States each year, an impressive statistic that exceeds the number of transplants of all other solid organs combined. In new research published in Communications Materials, researchers from CMU and the University of Pittsburgh propose using a small shrink-wrapped packet of corneal endothelial cells as a potential alternative to corneal transplantation when a low cell density endothelial is the cause of corneal blindness.

The corneal endothelium (CE) is a single layer of cells that lines the back surface of the cornea and is responsible for maintaining the thickness and clarity of the cornea. Nearly half of all corneal transplants come from EC failure, primarily due to loss of cells that cannot replicate to repair damage or injury.

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Although some treatments for EC failure exist, chronic rejection and the limited supply of donors have motivated the development of new methods to inject EC cells to repopulate the corneal endothelium and restore function. Until now, most approaches required the existing CE to be removed by scraping or cryo-injuring the cornea to provide a place for the delivered cells to attach.

“You can imagine that if you try to take a healthy cell and put it in a hostile tissue, it doesn’t want to stay there,” explained Rachelle Palchesko, a researcher at the special faculty of biomedical engineering. “We had a benchmark for the effective application of shrink-wrapped cells in the cornea based on work done by a group in Japan, and we knew we could improve on it. We were able to show that we can wrap cells efficiently and integrate them into tissues at high density, without inducing injury or eliminating cells.Our technology can improve cell therapies and help cells stay where we want them.

The group’s technique uses retractable micro-patterned islands of corneal endothelial cells in a basement membrane-like extracellular matrix layer that allows cells to maintain their cell-cell junctions and cytoskeletal structure in suspension. In a series of studies, the small cell bundles showed an ability to rapidly engraft into high-density intact corneal endothelial monolayers in in vitro and in vivo model systems.

“Most of my research has focused on the treatment of corneal blindness, but we believe this technology has great potential to be applied to other areas of the body,” Palchesko said. “Our lab group is studying how to apply this technology to treat cystic fibrosis or deliver cells after a heart attack.”

“Imagine if organ failure could be prevented with a simple injection into the affected tissue instead of waiting for a transplant that might never come,” said Adam Feinberg, professor of biomedical engineering and materials science and engineering. . “This is the truly exciting potential of the technology as it is developed and validated. And we are grateful for the support of the National Institutes of Health and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation in funding this research.”

Palchesko added, “It’s a simple and effective technology — it’s not overly designed; we just pack these cells in small packages. I think we can go further and help a lot of people. Cell therapies have long been considered an alternative treatment option for patients with various diseases caused by organ and tissue failure, including heart attack, diabetes, corneal blindness and cystic fibrosis. Although excellent in theory, in practice these therapies have limited clinical success in many applications due to low cell viability after injection, as well as poor retention at the injection site and graft. in damaged tissue. Ongoing research by BME’s Rachelle Palchesko and Adam Feinberg explores the use of a new method of cell delivery to help cells stay where they’re needed most.

More than 50,000 corneal transplant procedures are performed in the United States each year, an impressive statistic that exceeds the number of transplants of all other solid organs combined. In new research published in Communications Materials, researchers from CMU and the University of Pittsburgh propose using a small shrink-wrapped packet of corneal endothelial cells as a potential alternative to corneal transplantation when a low cell density endothelial is the cause of corneal blindness.

The corneal endothelium (CE) is a single layer of cells that lines the back surface of the cornea and is responsible for maintaining the thickness and clarity of the cornea. Nearly half of all corneal transplants come from EC failure, primarily due to loss of cells that cannot replicate to repair damage or injury.

Although some treatments for EC failure exist, chronic rejection and the limited supply of donors have motivated the development of new methods to inject EC cells to repopulate the corneal endothelium and restore function. Until now, most approaches required the existing CE to be removed by scraping or cryo-injuring the cornea to provide a place for the delivered cells to attach.

“You can imagine that if you try to take a healthy cell and put it in a hostile tissue, it doesn’t want to stay there,” explained Rachelle Palchesko, a researcher at the special faculty of biomedical engineering. “We had a benchmark for the effective application of shrink-wrapped cells in the cornea based on work done by a group in Japan, and we knew we could improve on it. We were able to show that we can wrap cells efficiently and integrate them into tissues at high density, without inducing injury or eliminating cells.Our technology can improve cell therapies and help cells stay where we want them.

The group’s technique uses retractable micro-patterned islands of corneal endothelial cells in a basement membrane-like extracellular matrix layer that allows cells to maintain their cell-cell junctions and cytoskeletal structure in suspension. In a series of studies, the small cell bundles showed an ability to rapidly engraft into high-density intact corneal endothelial monolayers in in vitro and in vivo model systems.

“Most of my research has focused on the treatment of corneal blindness, but we believe this technology has great potential to be applied to other areas of the body,” Palchesko said. “Our lab group is studying how to apply this technology to treat cystic fibrosis or deliver cells after a heart attack.”

“Imagine if organ failure could be prevented with a simple injection into the affected tissue instead of waiting for a transplant that might never come,” said Adam Feinberg, professor of biomedical engineering and materials science and engineering. . “This is the truly exciting potential of the technology as it is developed and validated. And we are grateful for the support of the National Institutes of Health and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation in funding this research.”

Palchesko added, “It’s a simple and effective technology — it’s not overly designed; we just pack these cells in small bundles. I think we can go further and help a lot of people. (ANI)

(This is an unedited and auto-generated story from syndicated newsfeed, LatestLY staff may not have edited or edited the body of the content)

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New all-optical switching method makes optical computing and communication systems more energy efficient https://www.scientific-library.net/new-all-optical-switching-method-makes-optical-computing-and-communication-systems-more-energy-efficient/ Mon, 06 Jun 2022 22:16:08 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/new-all-optical-switching-method-makes-optical-computing-and-communication-systems-more-energy-efficient/ Photonics researchers have introduced a new method to control a beam of light with another beam through a single plasmonic metasurface in a linear medium at very low power. This simple linear switching method makes nanophotonic devices such as optical computing and communication systems more durable requiring low light intensity.

All-optical switching is the modulation of the signal light due to the control light in such a way that it has the ON/OFF conversion function. In general, a light beam can be modulated by another intense laser beam in the presence of a nonlinear medium.

The switching method developed by the researchers is fundamentally based on the quantum optical phenomenon known as refractive index enhancement (EIR).

“Our work is the first experimental demonstration of this effect on the optical system and its use for linear all-optical switching. The research also enlightens the scientific community to obtain loss-compensated plasmonic devices operating at resonant frequencies through enhancement extraordinary refractive index without using any gain media or non-linear processes,” says Humeyra Caglayan, Tenure Track Associate Professor of Photonics at the University of Tampere.

Optical switching enabled with ultra-fast speed

High-speed switching and low-loss medium to avoid high signal dissipation during propagation are the basis for the development of integrated photonics technology where photons are used as information carriers instead of electrons. To realize ultra-fast on-chip all-optical switching networks and photonic CPUs, all-optical switching must have ultra-fast switching time, ultra-low threshold control power, ultra-high switching efficiency, and feature size at the nanometer scale.

“Switching between signal values ​​of 0 and 1 is fundamental in all digital electronic devices, including computers and communication systems. Over the past decades, these electronic elements have become progressively smaller and faster. For example, ordinary calculations performed with our computers on command of seconds could not be done with old room-sized computers, even in several days!” Caglayan’s remarks.

In conventional electronics, switching relies on controlling the flow of electrons on the microsecond (10-6 sec) or nanosecond (10-9 sec) range by connecting or disconnecting the electrical voltage.

“However, the switching speed can be scaled up to an ultra-fast time scale (femtosecond 10-15 sec) by replacing electrons with plasmons. Plasmons are a combination of photons and a collection of electrons on the surface of metals. This allows optical switching with our device with femtosecond (10-15 sec) speeds,” she says.

“Our plasmonic nano-switch consists of an L-shaped combination of metal nanorods. One of the nanorods receives a linearly polarized signal and the other receives another linearly polarized ‘control’ beam perpendicular to the first beam,” Rakesh explains. Dhama, postdoctoral researcher. , the first author of the article.

Polarization means the direction in which the electric field of the beam oscillates. The control beam can attenuate or amplify the signal depending on the phase difference between the beams. Phase difference refers to the time difference when each beam reaches its maximum intensity. Signal amplification occurs due to the transfer of some optical energy from the control beam to the signal through constructive superimposition with a carefully designed phase difference.

Improved performance of plasmonic devices

Similarly, signal attenuation is achieved by destructive superposition when the beams have an opposite phase shift. This discovery makes nanophotonic devices such as optical computing and communication systems more durable requiring low light intensity. This simple linear switching method can replace current optical processing, computing, or communication methods by accelerating the development and realization of nanoscale plasmonic systems.

“We expect to see further studies of plasmonic structures using our improved switching method and possibly the use of our method in plasmonic circuits in the future. Additionally, the L-shaped metasurface could be studied further. before to reveal ultra-fast switching under the illumination of femtosecond laser pulses and to study nonlinear enhancement and control of plasmonic nanoparticles,” notes Humeyra Caglayan.

Nonlinear response control of nanostructures offers even more exciting applications and functionality to nanophotonic devices such as optical computing and communication systems.

“This approach also has the potential to improve the performance of plasmonic devices by creating broadband transparency for a signal beam without any gain medium. It can open multiple ways to design smart photonics for integrated photonics,” she points out.

The research received funding from the H2020 European Research Council (Starting Grant project aQUARiUM, Academy of Finland Flagship Program (PREIN) and H2020 Research and Innovation Program (Marie Sk?odowska-Curie MULTIPLY).

The research was carried out by Metaplasmonics Research Group members Rakesh Dhama, Tuomas Pihlava, Dipa Ghindani and Humeyra Caglayan at TAU ​​and visiting researcher Ali Panah Pour.

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The 369 Manifestations Method: How to Make Your Therapy Sessions Work https://www.scientific-library.net/the-369-manifestations-method-how-to-make-your-therapy-sessions-work/ Sun, 05 Jun 2022 03:42:30 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/the-369-manifestations-method-how-to-make-your-therapy-sessions-work/ Psychologist Nancy Sokarno walks us through the 369 Manifestations Method and how to get the most out of your therapy sessions.

There’s a new mindfulness practice on the block and it merges visualization and manifestation to help reframe your thoughts into a more positive state of mind. Lysn psychologist Nancy Sokarno walks us through the 369 method to see if that’s all it’s supposed to be.

In life, we cannot control what happens to us, but we can control how we react. A positive response to life’s stress and uncertainty can help if you can learn to see things from a different perspective.

And a method that claims to help you do that has been circulating on social media called the 369 method, Body + Soul reports.

For more stories like this go to bodyandsoul.com.au

What is the 369 method?

The 369 Method is a technique that is considered a powerful way to manifest things into existence. This highlights the belief that certain numbers have specific powers and can speed up the manifestation process.

Grabbing worldwide attention through TikTok, it’s a form of spiritual enlightenment that uses numbers to focus on what you want in life. TikTok users say the 369 method brings them money, new relationships, a new job, and pay rises.

The 369 Method is very similar to ideas found in “The Secret” or “The Law of Attraction” that you use manifestation to get what you want in life. Manifestation is the notion that we can transform an idea into reality through our thoughts, intentions, beliefs, and general state of mind. The idea is that we focus on the things we desire and can attract them through what we think, say and do.

What are the origins of the 369 method?

Method 369 was originally inspired by scientist (and inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist) Nikola Tesla.

Tesla is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern AC power system. He was also known for his spiritual enlightenment and noted the numbers 3, 6 and 9 as “divine numbers”.

He was quoted as saying, “If you knew the magnificence of the numbers 3, 6, and 9, you have the key to the universe.”

But while Method 369 was inspired by Tesla, it was created and introduced to the public by Karen Yee, an expert in Law of Attraction methodology.

How does the 369 method work?

According to social media posts, to practice the 369 method, you need to set clear intentions about what you want, focus on the things you desire, and finally (and hopefully) attract them into your universe by using the power of numerology. .

The technique suggests that you should write down your desires in a sequence of 3, 6, and 9. Although it may seem like a very simple thing to do, the trick is to focus your mind on those things while you are. write, imagine them happening and give positive energy to those thoughts. The method says you don’t have to think about how it’s going to turn out, just to imagine it goes.

According to publications on the 369 method, the first step is to choose a goal, desire or dream that you want to achieve in your life. Although it says you can work on multiple desires at once, it’s supposed to be best to start with one goal and be specific, not vague.

The second step suggested is the process of writing down these desires in the morning. The method suggests writing them down three times a day – morning, noon and evening, for 45 days. In the morning, you must write down your desires three times. Ideally, you would do this in a dedicated process journal and keep it handy, so you can keep practicing.

The third step is to write them at noon, but this time write them six times.

The fourth step is to write them at night, but this time write them nine times.

Can the 369 method help you stay positive?

The 369 Method can involve lots of positive thinking, goal setting, and manifesting to bring what we want into our lives. The technique aligns with the positive affirmations tactic which is a popular technique sometimes used in cognitive behavioral therapy. This focuses on replacing a person’s existing thoughts that may be false and detrimental to their own sanity, with thoughts that positively affirm their own worth.

The psychological theory behind positive affirmations is described in the Psychology of assertiveness by Claude Steele. This theory focuses on how individuals adapt to information or experiences that threaten their self-image. He suggests that when a person engages in activities that will promote the values ​​and beliefs that are central to a person’s identity, it will also help promote self-integrity.

It’s a process of trying to train your brain to believe what you say and stop that negative inner voice. It can help people who have a negative disposition or poor self-image where they can try to reverse it by continually reaffirming positive statements to themselves.

What do you think of assertiveness and manifestation theories?

In my opinion, we really need to be wary of techniques like this. The problem is that they are not supported by science. Most experts (myself included) tend to dismiss the 369 method as an illegitimate technique. However, some components of techniques similar to this one might ring true (and for some, help them stay positive).

Overall, however, I would liken this technique to what is called a self-fulfilling prophecy in which we have an expectation about our future that manifests because we believe it will and our behaviors that result line up to fulfill this belief.

For example, if one of your 369 methods saves $1,000 in three months, your attitude and actions could make your prediction come true. You are more likely to be mindful of your spending habits and will begin to focus on saving during this time. You’ll naturally gravitate toward a money-saving option, like buying a private label item at the supermarket or ignoring the urge to buy that new dress.

Writing down your goal several times a day will certainly act as a constant reminder to work towards what you are manifesting.

Nancy Sokarno is a psychologist at Lysn. Lysn is a digital mental health company with world-class wellness technology that helps people find their best-suited professional psychologist while being able to access online tools to improve their mental health. www.welysn.com.

This story originally appeared on Body + Soul and has been reproduced with permission

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Is it a lie? New scientific method to detect the truth https://www.scientific-library.net/is-it-a-lie-new-scientific-method-to-detect-the-truth/ Sat, 04 Jun 2022 19:41:42 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/is-it-a-lie-new-scientific-method-to-detect-the-truth/

UN Security Council faces new draconian demands for reform after failing to prevent Russian invasion of Ukraine; seen here in a September 2017 photo of the Council Chamber in New York – Copyright AFP JANEK SKARZYNSKI

How do you know if someone is lying? Often there are telltale mannerisms or blushing, constant eye contact, etc. However, there are many who are adept at hiding their ability to spout lies. This becomes more problematic in life or death cases.

Unmasking liars by distraction is the basis of a new method of lie detection. The method shows that lie tellers who are asked to perform several tasks during an interview are easier to spot.

Research from the University of Portsmouth relies more on the psychological than the physical, in order to weed out serial liars. At the heart of this is the fact that lying during interviews consumes more cognitive energy than telling the truth.

The new research builds on this and establishes that investigators who have used this finding to their advantage by asking a suspect to perform an additional, secondary task while being questioned are more likely to expose the lietellers.

Indeed, the extra brain power needed to focus on a secondary task (other than lying) becomes much more difficult for lietellers.

This has been proven by a study. For the experiment, a secondary task was selected. The secondary task used in this experiment was to recall a seven-digit car registration number. However, the reaction to this secondary task was only effective if the lietellers were informed of its importance. Then, the process of dividing attention between making a statement and a secondary task provided sufficient behavioral differences for the researchers to successfully select liars and non-liars in a test group.

To show this, a study was conducted with 164 participants. The subjects were first asked to give their level of support or opposition on various social issues that were in the news. They were then randomly assigned to a truth or lie condition and asked about the three topics that mattered most to them. Truth tellers were instructed to report their true opinions while lie tellers were instructed to lie about their opinions during interviews.

Those who performed the secondary task were given a seven-digit registration number and had to remind the interviewer. Half of them received additional instructions that if they could not remember the car’s registration number during the interview, they could be asked to write down their opinions after the interview.

Participants were given the opportunity to prepare for the interview and were told that it was important to be as persuasive as possible during interviews (this was prompted by participants to believe they were entered into a draw by lot).

Detection was successful because the process also reduces the ability of liars to think what to say, and therefore engage in behaviors to avoid detection. From there, in situations, the possibility of thinking becomes less, truths often seem more plausible than lies.

The results revealed that the lietellers’ stories seemed less plausible and less clear than the truthtellers’ stories, especially when the lietellers were given the secondary task and told it was important.

The search appears in International Journal of Psychology and Behavior Analysistitled “The Effects of a Secondary Task on True and False Opinion Statement”.

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A new way to fight malaria turns the disease against itself https://www.scientific-library.net/a-new-way-to-fight-malaria-turns-the-disease-against-itself/ Fri, 03 Jun 2022 23:17:00 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/a-new-way-to-fight-malaria-turns-the-disease-against-itself/

A new method of fighting malaria that sees the disease turning on itself could provide effective treatment for the hundreds of millions of people infected each year around the world, as the effectiveness of current antimalarial drugs wanes.

Research led by the University of Melbourne published today in Science identified an anti-malarial compound, ML901, which inhibits the malaria parasite but does not damage cells in mammals – humans or other mammals.

Co-lead author Professor Leann Tilley, from the University of Melbourne’s Bio21 Institute, said the compound ML901 effectively made the parasite the agent of its own demise, which underlies its potency and its selectivity.

ML901 works by an unusual reaction diversion mechanism.


Imagine a stealth weapon that can be used to launch a self-destruct attack on your vehicle – slamming on the brakes and cutting out the engine. ML901 finds a particular flaw in the machinery that the malaria parasite uses to generate the proteins necessary for its reproduction and prevents it from doing so.


Although there is a lot of work to be done to refine what we have discovered, these results are really encouraging in the search for new antimalarials.”


Professor Leann Tilley, Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne

In collaboration with Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Medicines for Malaria Medicine – the leading international organization for the development of antimalarial drugs – and research laboratories on five continents, tests were carried out using molecules provided by Takeda, in during which compound ML901 was identified.

Once ML901 entered the parasite, it attached itself to an amino acid and attacked the protein synthesis machinery from within, quickly immobilizing the parasite. The molecular structure of human cells means that they are not susceptible to attack by ML901.

In tests using both human blood cultures and an animal model of malaria, the team found that ML901 killed malaria parasites resistant to currently used drugs and showed rapid and prolonged action resulting in excellent parasite clearance.

Professor Tilley said the compound has shown activity against all stages of the life cycle, meaning it could be used to prevent malaria infections as well as treat the disease.

“It also shows potential for preventing infected people from transmitting the disease to others, which is critical to stopping the spread of malaria.”

Each year, at least 200 million new malaria infections are diagnosed worldwide, causing more than 600,000 deaths in Africa and Southeast Asia. Over the past 50 years, ever-increasing levels of antimalarial drug resistance have led to a looming crisis, with breakthrough drugs desperately needed.

Professor Tilley said that based on these findings, the team was ready to pursue the development of new antimalarial drug candidates.

“We believe this is just the beginning. We now have the potential to find drugs, similar to ML901, that target a range of deadly infectious diseases, including multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. The work opens up several new avenues of drug discovery.

Source:

Journal reference:

Xie, SC, et al. (2022) Tyrosine tRNA synthetase reaction hijacking as a new life cycle antimalarial strategy. Science. doi.org/10.1126/science.abn0611.

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A hyper-resolution photoacoustic imaging method accelerated by… https://www.scientific-library.net/a-hyper-resolution-photoacoustic-imaging-method-accelerated-by/ Fri, 03 Jun 2022 05:03:35 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/a-hyper-resolution-photoacoustic-imaging-method-accelerated-by/



In a new study published in Light Science & Application, researchers led by Professor Chulhong Kim have created a technique that uses artificial intelligence to overcome the problem of slow imaging speed.

FREMONT, Calif.: Thunder can be heard for a brief moment after a lightning strike. This is because the surrounding substance that has been struck by lightning absorbs the light, which is then converted into heat, causing the material to expand and emit sound. Photoacoustic Imaging (PAI), a technology that uses this phenomenon to take images from inside the body, is being tested as a new medical imaging device in a variety of preclinical and clinical settings. PAI technology uses the localization imaging approach, which involves the repeated imaging of the same area to produce extremely high spatial resolution beyond the physical limit, regardless of imaging depth. However, since many frames, each carrying the location target, must be overlapped to generate an adequately sampled high-density super-resolution image, this higher spatial resolution comes at the cost of temporal resolution. This made it difficult to use for research requiring immediate confirmation.

A team of scientists led by Professor Chulhong Kim and multi-institutional partners have created an AI-based localization PAI to overcome slow imaging speed issues in new work published in Light Science & Application. He was able to address all three of these concerns at once by applying deep learning to improve imaging speed and reduce the number of laser beams needed on the body. The study team was able to reduce the number of photos used in this procedure by more than tenfold and increase the imaging speed by twelvefold thanks to deep learning technologies. Localization photoacoustic microscopy and photoacoustic computed tomography times were cut in half, from 30 seconds to 2.5 seconds and from 30 minutes to 2.5 minutes, respectively.

This innovation opens the possibility of using PAI localization techniques in a variety of preclinical and clinical applications that require both high speed and exquisite spatial resolution, such as investigations of drug and hemodynamic responses. Above all, one of the most notable advantages of this technique is that it significantly reduces both the exposure to the laser beam of the living body and the imaging time, which provides relief to patients.

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TERP: a method for achieving reliable robotic navigation in rough outdoor terrain https://www.scientific-library.net/terp-a-method-for-achieving-reliable-robotic-navigation-in-rough-outdoor-terrain/ Thu, 02 Jun 2022 17:02:10 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/terp-a-method-for-achieving-reliable-robotic-navigation-in-rough-outdoor-terrain/

Trajectories of the robot when navigating in rough terrain (altitude gain ≥ 3 m) using four different methods: our TERP method (pink), Ego-graph (orange), DWA (blue) and the Attn-DRL method of end to end (purple) . TERP generates waypoints (pink dots) that are dynamically feasible and accessible by local paths at lower cost. Other methods navigate in dangerous regions with high elevation gradients that could lead to unstable robot orientations. The TERP leads to trajectories with low elevation gradients with a higher success rate of reaching objectives. Credit: Weerakoon et al.

Autonomous mobile robots are already being tested and used for applications such as package delivery, surveillance, search and rescue missions, planetary/space exploration and environmental monitoring. For these robots to successfully accomplish their missions, they must be able to operate safely and reliably in rough outdoor terrain, without colliding with nearby obstacles.

Researchers at the University of Maryland, College Park (UMDCP) recently developed a new machine learning method that could improve the reliability of robot navigation in rough outdoor terrain and in the presence of obstacles. Their study was presented by the GAMMA research group of the UMDCP at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 2022.

“We observed that geometric features of the terrain, including changes in elevation or roughness, significantly affect the stability of a robot’s movements during navigation,” Dinesh Manocha, a professor at the UMDCP who led this research project. “Therefore, it is essential for robots to perceive these terrain features in the environment to make safe navigation decisions. “

Before Manocha and his students began working on their robotic navigation method, researchers closely observed the locomotion strategies of humans as they move through a complex outdoor environment. Interestingly, they noticed that humans did not focus on the whole environment when moving, but rather on regions of space that they considered critical or important.

The robot navigation method developed by Manocha’s group was inspired by the locomotion behavior they observed in humans. This method, called TERP (Terrain Elevation-based Robot Path planning), is based on a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) technique they developed.

“Our new hybrid machine learning architecture combines the intermediate output results of our attention-based DRL network with a novel path planning method,” said Weerakoon, a Ph.D. student working on the project. Explain. “These intermediate results help to identify and avoid difficult or dangerous areas in the environment during navigation. Our approach uses a fully trained DRL network that uses elevation maps, the robot’s pose, and its target as inputs to calculate a mask of attention.

The attention mask calculated by the team’s algorithm then guides a mobile robot to regions of its surrounding environment that it needs to pay special attention to achieve stable navigation. Ultimately, this mask is combined with the input elevation map produced by the process, creating a 2D navigation cost map. This map is then used to plot a safe and reliable path for the robot to reach a desired location.

Trajectories of the robot while navigating different simulated and real uneven terrain using TERP (pink), TERP without attention (yellow), end-to-end Attn-DRL network (purple), ego-graph (orange), Egograph+ (green) and DWA (blue). (a) High altitude; (b) Citycurb; (c) Low Altitude; (d) Mid Altitude; (e) real-world average elevation; (f) real world edge; (g) real world average elevation; (h) real-world average elevation with obstacle regions; We observe that TERP calculates trajectories with low elevation gradients over rough terrain and is able to handle difficult sidewalk scenarios. Credit: Weerakoon et al.

“In previous work, we observed significant performance degradation in end-to-end DRL methods when transferring from simulation to real-world terrains,” said Sathyamoorthy, another Ph.D. student working on this project. , said. “However, our new hybrid machine learning architecture improves navigation performance.”

The attention component of the TERP can dramatically improve a robot’s spatial awareness, simply by shifting its attention to the regions most critical for the navigation task at hand. On the other hand, the waypoint planning component of their method ensures that the robot follows the most cost-effective path to reach its destination.

“TERP generates relatively stable trajectories in steep elevations to minimize the risk of robot rollover,” said Patel, a research staff member working on the project. “In addition, it can avoid dangerous regions and obstacles when navigating complex terrain with static and dynamic obstacles.”

Manocha and his students evaluated their method in different real-world environments, using the Husky robot, an unmanned mobile robotic system developed by Clearpath Robotics. In their tests, the robots navigated outdoor spaces with rough terrain, with an elevation gain of up to 4 meters.

“We have shown that our unique hybrid formulation with an attention DRL network for perception and a waypoint planner for navigation leads to a high navigation success rate over complex terrain,” Manocha said. “This implies that our method significantly reduces the risk of the robot rolling over when navigating difficult rough terrain.”

In the team’s initial evaluations, TERP achieved remarkable results, suggesting that it can significantly improve the robot’s navigation reliability in complex outdoor environments. In the future, it could be used to improve the performance of robots in many contexts, for example opening up new possibilities for planetary and space explorations, agricultural surveys and complex environmental monitoring.

“We plan to improve our system in the future by addressing some of its current limitations,” Manocha added. “In particular, we have observed that in addition to terrain elevation, surface properties such as texture, bumps and deformability govern a robot’s navigability in complex outdoor scenarios and we are working on methods self-supervised learning methods to handle such scenarios.We also extend these methods for the autonomous navigation of legged robots, such as the Boston Dynamics Spot robot.


A beaver-inspired method to guide the movements of a one-legged swimming robot


More information:

TERP: Reliable planning in uneven outdoor environments using deep reinforcement learning. GAMMA Group, University of Maryland, College Park (2022). arXiv:2109.05120 [cs.RO] arxiv.org/abs/2109.05120

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Audubon scientists develop new method to improve mapping of bird migrations https://www.scientific-library.net/audubon-scientists-develop-new-method-to-improve-mapping-of-bird-migrations/ Wed, 01 Jun 2022 21:46:41 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/audubon-scientists-develop-new-method-to-improve-mapping-of-bird-migrations/

NEW YORK – More than forty scientists from the National Audubon Society and other bird and wildlife research and conservation groups have published a new study model a new approach to map seasonal migration for the birds. The study, recently published in Ecological applications, a part of best available forms of migration data for 12 species of migratory birds that represented different families, migration strategies, breeding ranges and sizes of available data sets.

“Migratory birds make some of the most impressive journeys on earth, and this new method of mapping their migrations gives us a clearer picture of where these birds travel,” said Dr. quantitative ecologist for the National Audubon Society and lead author of the study.

The migration data used in this study can be classified into three broad categories: patterns of occurrence and abundance, represented by eBird Status products from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology; banding recovery data, provided by the USGS Bird Banding Laboratory; and tracking datasets contributed by researchers around the world and made available on .The researchers integrated these types of migration data for 12 species relying on the strengths of each, to movements of migratory birds. The models give researchers a unique picture of avian migration, especially for species with migrations over water or migrations that take place across geographies.

“Birds tell us about the health of our environment, and better mapping of their migration routes shows us where we should focus our conservation efforts,” said Dr. , senior director of Audubon’s Migratory Bird Initiative and co-author of the study. “These new maps will help communities across the hemisphere protect migratory birds and the places they need.”

For many species of migratory birds, the complete annual cycle remains relatively unknown or poorly understood. The three types of data describe the annual cycle in different ways; banding and tracking data provide detailed information on how individual birds move through the hemisphere, often allowing links between breeding and wintering populations, but they provide limited information on the movement of the whole of population. eBird Status products use information collected by community scientists to provide information on the distribution of the entire population throughout the year. By combining these two types of data, the researchers were able to generate maps that depict the pathways by which migratory birds move through the hemisphere. Migratory birds are also facing steep declines, with an estimated 2.5 billion individuals lost between 1970 and 2019.

More types of migration data can allow this integration to be developed even further, filling knowledge gaps on species across the hemisphere.

“The more data we have and the better the tracking technology, the clearer these migration pathways can be,” Dr. , a quantitative ecologist and co-author of the study. “It’s exciting to be able to work with researchers around the world to put these pieces together and give us the best chance of protecting migratory birds.”

In addition to Audubon, the co-authors of the new study represent the following institutions and organizations:

  • Antioch University

  • University of Alberta

  • University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

  • SUNY College of Environmental and Forestry Sciences

  • Drexel University

  • Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, acopy Conservation Learning Center

  • Arkansas State University

  • 1000 Herons, Lenoir-Rhyne University

  • Albany Pinewood Preservation Commission

  • US Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center

  • Wildlife Conservation Society Canada

  • Raptor View Research Institute

  • BirdsCanada

  • Millersville University

  • Cary Institute for Ecosystem Studies

  • Vermont Center for Ecological studies

  • Cypress Grove Research Center, Audubon Canyon Ranch

  • North Carolina Museum of Natural Science, NCSU

  • USDA National Wildlife Research Center, Mississippi Field Station

  • Georgetown University

  • International Avian Research

  • California State Parks, UC Davis Geography Graduate Group

  • University of Guelph

  • Utah Division Wildlife Resources

  • Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center

The National Audubon Society protects the birds and the places they need, today and tomorrow, across the Americas using science, advocacy, education and on-the-ground conservation. State programs, nature centers, chapters, and Audubon partners have an unprecedented scale reaching millions of people each year to inform, inspire, and unite diverse communities in conservation action. Since 1905, Audubon’s vision has been a world in which people and wildlife thrive. Audubon is a non-profit conservation organization. Find out how to help audubon.org and follow us on Twitter and instagram at @audubonsociety.


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Innovative method of treating liver cancer sets the stage for testing prostate and brain cancers https://www.scientific-library.net/innovative-method-of-treating-liver-cancer-sets-the-stage-for-testing-prostate-and-brain-cancers/ Tue, 31 May 2022 20:34:25 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/innovative-method-of-treating-liver-cancer-sets-the-stage-for-testing-prostate-and-brain-cancers/

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