Science method – Scientific Library http://www.scientific-library.net/ Tue, 10 May 2022 18:34:03 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://www.scientific-library.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/cropped-icon-32x32.png Science method – Scientific Library http://www.scientific-library.net/ 32 32 Scientists Advance Renewable Hydrogen Production Method https://www.scientific-library.net/scientists-advance-renewable-hydrogen-production-method/ Tue, 10 May 2022 18:34:03 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/scientists-advance-renewable-hydrogen-production-method/ Perovskite materials could have the potential to play an important role in a process of producing hydrogen in a renewable way, according to an analysis by scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

Hydrogen has become an important vector for storing energy generated by renewable resources, replacing fossil fuels used for transport, in the production of ammonia and for other industrial applications. The key to success in using hydrogen as a fuel is being able to meet the Department of Energy’s Hydrogen Energy Earthshot target, a recently announced goal of reducing the cost of clean hydrogen by 80% to $1. per kilogram in a decade.

NREL scientists analyzed an emerging water splitting technology called solar thermochemical hydrogen production (STCH), which may be potentially more energy efficient than producing hydrogen via the commonly used electrolysis method. Electrolysis needs electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. STCH relies on a two-step chemical process in which metal oxides are exposed to temperatures above 1,400 degrees Celsius and then reoxidized with steam at lower temperatures to produce hydrogen.

“It is certainly a very challenging area, and there are still a lot of unanswered research questions, mainly from a materials perspective,” said Zhiwen Ma, senior engineer at NREL and lead author of a new paper, “ System and Technoeconomic Analysis of Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production”, which appears in the journal Renewable energy. Its co-authors, all from NREL, are Patrick Davenport and Geneviève Saur.

The paper complements ongoing materials discovery research by examining system-level design and techno-economic analysis to integrate possible materials into a solar fuel platform and supporting the Department of Energy’s HydroGEN program. ‘Energy. Materials discovery in the HydroGEN program involved machine learning, defect calculations and experimental work to develop new perovskite materials. Researchers need to identify perovskites that can withstand the high temperatures required while meeting performance goals.

This work presents part of a portfolio of technical and economic analyzes centered on the hydrogen production sectors, each with its advantages and disadvantages. Electrolysis, for example, is commercially available and the electricity needed can come from photovoltaics (PV). However, the photovoltaic cells used capture only part of the solar spectrum. STCH uses the whole spectrum. Concentrated solar thermal energy allows STCH to create the chemical reaction.

Active research to identify the best materials for the STCH process is critical to the success of this method of hydrogen production, the scientists noted.

“The material hasn’t necessarily been found,” Saur said, “but this analysis is intended to provide some boundaries as to where we think the costs will be if the materials meet some of the targets and expectations envisioned by the research community.

This research is funded by the Department of Energy’s Office of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies.

Source of the story:

Material provided by DOE/National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

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Dr. Mutsuaki Murakami publishes a new book on a new method of producing high quality graphite from polymers. https://www.scientific-library.net/dr-mutsuaki-murakami-publishes-a-new-book-on-a-new-method-of-producing-high-quality-graphite-from-polymers/ Mon, 09 May 2022 23:31:23 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/dr-mutsuaki-murakami-publishes-a-new-book-on-a-new-method-of-producing-high-quality-graphite-from-polymers/

Japan, May 7, 2022, a book titled “”Research on The Development of Advanced Graphite Materials” has been published. The author is Dr. Mutsuaki Murakami, corporate engineer, and it is a unique book that summarizes the findings of his many years of research and development on graphite materials.

Mr. Murakami was born in 1946. In 1970, he graduated from Ehime University Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Industrial Chemistry. In the same year, he joined Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (currently Panasonic Corporation) began life as a researcher and technology developer at the Matsushita Research Institute in Tokyo (MRIT). In 1986, he obtained a doctorate in science from the University of Tokyo. In 2001, he left Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. and joined Kaneka Corporation. Since 2005, he has also been a visiting professor at the Center for Extreme Environmental Research and Technology at Osaka University.

He has constantly worked on the work of developing new materials and devices by applying heat, electric current and light to organic materials and achieving their commercialization, as a researcher and engineer in companies. This book summarizes the results of his research on the manufacture of high quality graphite from organic polymers (abbreviated GPP method). It is the greatest achievement of his various R&D efforts. In this book, he describes how ADVANCED GRAPHITE is becoming an important material for today’s industry, as well as the various applications and devices that are currently being made. with graphite.

Graphite is a material that has the potential to innovate the industry in the 21st century as it has extremely excellent physical properties that can be called a super material. For example, the electrical conductivity of a high quality graphite ab surface is 1/25 times that of copper and 1.6 × 107 times that of silicon, the carrier mobility is 750 times that of copper and 8 times that of silicon, the thermal conductivity is 5 times that of copper and 12 times that of silicon, and the heat resistance is 3 times that of copper and twice that of silicon. Therefore, graphite with excellent properties should be used more as a base material in industry. However, until recently it was not possible to produce graphite with such ideal properties on an industrial scale. As a result, various active devices taking advantage of the thermal, electrical, electronic and mechanical properties of graphite had not been realized.

However, in recent years, advances in the GPP method developed by the authors have made it possible to produce high-quality graphites of various shapes on an industrial scale, and many active devices have been born from these graphites. This book presents the invention of this method, the elucidation of the mechanism of graphitization, the progress of manufacturing technology and the development of various applications.

Dr. Murakami remembers his accomplishments very conservatively. “40 years ago, graphite was prepared from heat-treated polymers. It started out as an academic study to develop double bonds by thermally treating a polymer and studying its relationship to electrical conductivity. “As the electrical conductivity of the obtained carbon precursors was significantly different, I wanted to process this at a higher temperature to make graphite.” “At the time, graphite had never been made from polymers, and many thought such a challenge was unnecessary. However, it has been found that some polymers become a very high quality graphite film (GF) when heat treated at a high temperature of 3000°C. This was the first discovery to reveal that high quality graphite could be obtained from polymers. “Many years have passed since this study, but I still vividly remember the excitement I felt when I discovered during X-ray measurements that these films were made of high-quality graphite.”

Furthermore, Dr. Murakami stated the following. “Since then, I have continued to research and develop this technique, and with the cooperation of many people, I have realized various forms of graphite and its applications and explored the true properties of graphite. In fact, it There were many challenges and difficulties in realizing a device using the GF obtained by the GPP method. In this book, I have described the process of overcoming these problems and realizing their device and bringing it to market. to date, no book has been compiled from such a perspective and that is the greatest feature of this book that cannot be found in other books, and that is the main reason why I wrote this book.

The first problem with marketing the GF was that the film was tough and brittle. This book describes the process of converting such a film into a flexible and resistant film (FGF) and the realization of its commercialization. FGF is widely used in mobile phones as a heat diffusion film and has contributed greatly to its widespread use. Today, “heat” is a serious problem in many electronic devices. FGF, which has excellent heat conduction characteristics, shows great power as a heat control material by showing wisdom depending on its application. Currently, GF produced by GPP method has become a big industry, and its estimated global production value has reached about USD 1800 million.

The second challenge was that the thickness of high-quality GFs that could be produced by the GPP method was limited to the range of 10–75 μⅿ. The manufacture of thicker graphite was solved by laminating several polymer films and graphitizing them. Several applications have already been made using blocks made by this process. In addition, technologies related to the production of thin-film GFs of 10 μⅿ or less have been developed, and many technological improvements have led to the development of thin-film GFs in the range of 0.01 μⅿ to 3 μm. The developed GF thin film has excellent electrical and electronic properties similar to the highest quality graphite crystals, opening up entirely new applications. The thickness of the graphite produced by these developments differs by a factor of 5 million. This book describes the progress of these R&Ds and explains the expectations for further development.

Dr. Murakami states that this research and development will be further developed, and various devices that utilize the excellent physical characteristics of graphite ab surface will be made in the future, and graphite will be a material that will revolutionize the industry. He added that he hopes this book gives you insight into the life of a corporate engineer and a whole new world of graphite.

This book was published by Index of Sciences Ltd. and is available on amazon. Please click https://www.amazon.com/Research-Development-Advanced-Graphite-Materials/dp/B09TR8HG83 to purchase this book.

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Electrochemical method of carbon capture https://www.scientific-library.net/electrochemical-method-of-carbon-capture/ Sun, 08 May 2022 13:30:59 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/electrochemical-method-of-carbon-capture/

A good method of sucking carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide (which is necessary to avoid further global warming), apart from tree growth, is “direct air capture”, which is being tested in some places .

In this method, the air passes through chemicals that absorb carbon dioxide. But the challenge arises when you want to separate the carbon dioxide from these chemicals – so that the chemicals can be reused – because that would require intense heat of almost 800 degrees C. This rubs the economy of the process in the wrong sense.

Now Professor Bryan McCloskey of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California has come up with a potentially cheaper approach. His method uses electrochemistry to capture carbon dioxide.

Electrochemistry generally involves atoms donating or receiving electrons; this science is the basis of all batteries and fuel cells. Professor McCloskey’s process reacts carbon dioxide with hydroxide ions to form bicarbonates. It then uses electrochemical methods to separate the carbon dioxide and hydroxide ions, so the gas can be stored and the hydroxide reused.

As Professor McCloskey explains the process, you bubble air through an absorber containing a solution of sodium hydroxide. This will cause the formation of sodium bicarbonate. Bicarbonate is introduced into a special electrochemical cell, where the reaction regenerates sodium hydroxide.

In the electrochemical cell, two reactions occur at each of its electrodes. At an electrode, the bicarbonate is oxidized to form a pressurized stream of carbon dioxide, which can be sequestered. At the other electrode, hydrogen gas is generated, which consumes protons to regenerate the alkaline solution. “Hydrogen production is definitely a bonus of our alkaline regeneration system,” McCloskey says. Thus, the process produces a stream of concentrated carbon dioxide and another stream of hydrogen.

McCloskey estimates it would be possible to capture carbon dioxide for $100 a ton, compared to other methods that cost six times as much.

Read also

He warns that while the science is decided, the systems will have to be designed for perfection. He points out that the whole system involves innovations in three points.

The first is the stability of the electrochemical cell. The electrodes must be sturdy. The cell must also be energy efficient.

The second area of ​​innovation is the membrane that separates the two electrodes from each other. Otherwise, hydrogen and carbon dioxide would mix; they are more valuable as pure flows, says McCloskey. In the prototype, the researcher used a special membrane, called Nafion, often used in fuel cells but expensive. Research is ongoing to develop a cost effective membrane.

The third innovation concerns the development of a suitable catalyst for the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide reaction. The catalyst would enhance the reaction.

McCloskey is “very confident” that these aspects will be corrected over time, in particular thanks to the expertise available at the Berkeley Lab. “We have experts in all of these different areas, such as membrane technology, molecular simulation and modeling, and electrocatalysis,” notes McCloskey.

Published on

May 08, 2022

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Distributed deep learning method without sharing sensitive data https://www.scientific-library.net/distributed-deep-learning-method-without-sharing-sensitive-data/ Sat, 07 May 2022 07:31:24 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/distributed-deep-learning-method-without-sharing-sensitive-data/

Data sharing is one of the major challenges of machine learning models. The advent of techniques such as federated learning, differential privacy, and split learning have solved data silos, privacy, and regulatory issues in a big way.

In this article, we’ll look at split learning, a new technique developed at the MIT Media Lab that allows machine learning models to be trained without sharing raw data. The technique solves challenges like data silos, data sharing, etc.

Most importantly, Split Neural Networks (SplitNN) does not share raw data or model details with collaborating institutions. Configurations meet the practical parameters of entities holding different modalities of patient data; centralized and local health entities collaborating on multiple tasks; and learning without sharing labels, the article, Split learning for health: Distributed deep learning without sharing raw patient data, showed this.

The researchers compared the performance and resource efficiency tradeoffs of split learning and other methods like federated learning and large-batch synchronous stochastic gradient descent. The results showed the

How Split Learning Works

SplitNN is a distributed and private deep learning technique for training deep neural networks on multiple data sources without the need to directly share labeled raw data. SplitNN solves the problem of training a model on multiple data entities.

The model is divided into several split-training sections, each trained on a different client. For example, the data being trained may reside on a supercomputing resource or on multiple clients participating in the collaborative training. However, none of the clients forming the model can “see” each other’s data.

Techniques are applied on the data, which encode the data in a different space before sending it to train the model. Since the model is split into several sections and each of these sections is trained on a different client, the network training is deferred by transferring the weights from the last layer of each section to the adjacent (or next) section. Thus, only the weights of the last layer (also called the cut layer) of each section are sent to the next client, and no raw data is shared between clients.

As shown in the figure above, the training layer of SplitNN is marked by the green line, representing the cut layer. The upper part of the model is trained on the server and the lower part of the model is trained on multiple clients.

These steps continue until the distributed shared learning network is trained without looking at each other’s raw data.

For example, a split learning setup allows local hospitals with smaller individual data sets to collaborate and build machine learning models that deliver superior healthcare diagnostics without sharing raw data.

SplitNN Configurations

Split learning: distributed deep learning method without sharing sensitive data

(Source: arXiv)

Simple Vanilla Split Learning

This is the simplest SplitNN configuration, as shown in Figure (a). For example, in this framework, each customer (for example, a radiology center) forms a partial model down to a specific layer called the “cutting layer”. Then, the outputs at the cut layers are sent to a server which completes the rest of the training without seeing the raw data (example: radiology images) from the clients.

This completes a forward propagation cycle without sharing any raw data. Gradients are now propagated back to the server from its last layer to the cut layer. Finally, the gradients at the cut layers are sent back to the radiology customer centers.

The rest of the backpropagation is now complete in the radiology customer centers. This process continues until the SplitNN is trained without looking at the raw data of the other.

Label-free split learning

As shown in the image above (Figure (b)), the network is wrapped around the server network edge layers and the output is fed back to the client entities. While the server keeps most of its layers, the clients generate the gradients from the final layers. This is then used for backpropagation without sharing the corresponding tags.

For example, tags contain very sensitive information such as patient status. The configuration is ideal for distributed deep learning.

Split learning for vertically partitioned data

This type of setup allows multiple institutions holding different modalities of patient data to learn distributed models without revealing or sharing the data. As shown in the image above (figure c), the configuration of SplitNN is suitable for multi-modal multi-institutional collaboration.

For example, radiology centers want to collaborate with pathology testing centers and a server for disease diagnosis. Therefore, radiology centers holding imaging data modalities form a partial model down to the cutting layer. Similarly, pathology test centers with patient test results form a partial model down to its own cut layer.

Once done, the cut layer level outputs from these two centers are then concatenated and sent to the disease diagnosis server which forms the rest of the model. These steps are repeated to train the distributed deep learning model without sharing each other’s raw data.

Conclusion

Simple distributed deep learning setups cannot handle various practical configurations of collaboration between healthcare entities. This is where SplitNN comes in. Additionally, SplitNN is versatile, allowing many plug-and-play configurations depending on the application. SplitNN is also scalable for large scale settings. Furthermore, the limits of resource efficiency can be pushed further in distributed deep learning by combining SplitNN with neural network compression methods for seamless distributed learning at the edge.

This article is written by a member of the AIM Leaders Council. AIM Leaders Council is an invitation-only forum of senior executives from the data science and analytics industry. To check if you are eligible for membership, please complete the form here.

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BHU researchers find method to remove metal from water https://www.scientific-library.net/bhu-researchers-find-method-to-remove-metal-from-water/ Fri, 06 May 2022 10:00:56 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/bhu-researchers-find-method-to-remove-metal-from-water/ Researchers from the School of Biochemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) have found success in finding a simple way to remove harmful copper, nickel and zinc ions from the contaminated water.

The researchers prepared the mold in the study using Ganga soil from Varanasi ghat and bentonite clay.

The mold has been tested for its ability to adsorb copper, nickel and zinc ions. The adsorption process showed that equilibrium was reached within half an hour of the process.

The research is published in the International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, published by Springer. The impact factor for this review is 3.083.

Giving background on this research, Assistant Professor Dr. Vishal Mishra, Principal Investigator of the School of Biochemical Engineering and his PhD student Jyoti Singh said that bentonite is a clay mineral from the smectite group found in nature.

It has a large active surface, specific moisturizing properties and strong cation exchange capacities. It is inexpensive, widely available, and effective against a wide range of impurities and metal ions. Because of these properties, bentonite clay is an excellent choice for the removal of heavy metal ions from bulk solutions. One of its interesting properties is the ability of bentonite to adsorb cations.

He further explained that adsorption in soil occurs when components in solution adsorb on the surface of soil particles. This process is influenced by the inorganic and organic components of the soil surface as well as the associated environmental conditions.

Soil particles can include a wide variety of compounds, including soil components, plant nutrients, surfactants, pesticides, and environmental pollutants found in soil solutions.

Soil is amphoteric, with a broad spectrum of negative and positive charges and magnitudes. Clay retains a stable negative charge due to ion substitution or site vacancies in crystalline clay minerals and structural defects due to non-crystalline hydrated oxides of silica, iron and aluminum.

Dr. Vishal Mishra informed that Varanasi has a humid subtropical climate with significant temperature difference between summer and winter. The average annual rainfall in the basin varies from 39 to 200 cm, with an average of 110 cm. Eighty percent of the rainfall occurs during the monsoon season, which lasts from June to October.

Due to the large temporal variation in precipitation throughout the year, the flow characteristics of the river vary considerably. Concentrations of all heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb) increased at downstream sampling stations.

The main sources of these elements are emissions from nearby urban and industrial areas. Vehicle emissions are the main source of urban particles. Re-suspension of particles deposited on the ground can provide further evidence of heavy metal loading.

He said heavy metals have high atomic numbers, atomic weights and atomic densities and are poisonous if consumed in large amounts.

Although heavy metal poisoning is generally treatable, prolonged exposure can lead to life-threatening and debilitating illnesses.

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New method to measure chemical kinetics https://www.scientific-library.net/new-method-to-measure-chemical-kinetics/ Thu, 05 May 2022 16:07:00 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/new-method-to-measure-chemical-kinetics/

Led by the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), scientists have developed a new technique to quantify the chemical kinetics by imaging the development of a reaction at a liquid-liquid interface that has been fixed in a microjet laminar flow liquid.

A flat jet showing blue luminescence due to the oxidation of Luminol. The photograph shows the sheets formed by the crossing of two liquid microjets, flowing from left to right, and shows that the first sheet is characterized by a laminar flow. As a result, a liquid-liquid interface is formed which can be used to measure chemical kinetics. Image credit: A. Osterwalder (Federal Polytechnic School of Lausanne).

This technique appears to be perfect for sub-millisecond time scale dynamics studies, which is very difficult to do with current applications.

This is a new application of so-called flat water jets. We prepare a controlled interface between two aqueous solutions and use it to measure chemical kinetics.

Andreas Osterwalder, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne

It is possible for chemists to design a controllable smooth (and in some cases flat) surface of a liquid that could be used for surface scattering or spectroscopy studies using free-flowing liquid microjets. The free flow of liquid present in air or vacuum allows unhindered optical access to gas-liquid and liquid-vacuum interfaces.

Some major applications of microjets include evaporation dynamics, attosecond pulse generation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and gas-liquid chemistry. A famous implementation is a single cylindrical jet, created by forcing a liquid out through a nozzle measuring 10–50 μm in diameter and under a pressure of a few bars, resulting in a laminar jet with a flow velocity of several tens of meters per second.

Lately, these microjets have gained enormous interest in vacuum applications, where the jets tend to move freely and remain liquid for a few millimeters before breaking up into droplets and being subjected to freezing.

Many experiments require a flat surface that prevents unwanted averaging over the angle-dependent surface effects.

Andreas Osterwalder, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne

Therefore, due to this need, researchers have proposed various arrangements of laminar flow planar surfaces, thereby generating so-called liquid flat jets.

Liquid leaves

A general form of such an arrangement is to protrude two cylindrical jets of a liquid. The resulting flat jet is known as a chain of sheet-like structures of the flowing liquid. “Sheets” are sheets that are only a few microns thick, and each has been bound by a relatively thick fluid rim and stabilized by fluid inertia and surface tension.

At the point where the two cylindrical jets tend to intersect, the solutions are forced outward, while moving in a full forward direction. However, the surface tension of flowing solutions counteracts this, so that eventually the outer boundaries tend to coalesce to form the so-called “sheet” shape.

These free-flowing impinging jets produce a sheet structure, where we hypothesized that due to the absence of turbulence, the fluids flow next to each other in the first sheet, forming an interface between two liquids.

Andreas Osterwalder, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne

Osterwalder added:We thought this would make it a great tool for accessing the liquid-liquid interface of even miscible fluids – fluids that mix homogeneously, and even two identical solvent samples..”

The flat jet arrangement was tested by the researchers using it to study the kinetics of the chemiluminescent reaction of luminol oxidation. This is known as the glow-in-the-dark reaction which discharges blue light when the organic compound luminol has been oxidized. The reaction is famous among criminal investigators who trace blood, but it is also widely used in biological research tests.

Using the luminol reaction, the scientists verified that the flat jet is indeed made up of a liquid-liquid interface, instead of solutions mixed by turbulent processes. In addition, they illustrate a method of chemical kinetic studies under controlled conditions.

The advantage of the flat jet technique is that it removes the requirement for rapid mixing of solutions and takes advantage of fluid jets which are undisturbed by friction on the vessel walls.

We believe this is a promising approach for measuring chemical kinetics at the sub-millisecond scale, a range very difficult to achieve with existing technologies, and for studying fundamental dynamics at liquid-liquid interfaces.“said Osterwalder.

The study was financially supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, the German Research Foundation (DFG), EPFL-Max Planck Center for Molecular Nanosciences and Technology

Journal reference:

Schewe, HC, et al. (2022) Imaging chemical kinetics at the water-water interface in a free-flowing liquid flat jet. Journal of the American Chemical Society. doi.org/10.1021/jacs.2c01232.

Source: https://www.epfl.ch/fr/

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New method to obtain biomass from porous carbonaceous materials https://www.scientific-library.net/new-method-to-obtain-biomass-from-porous-carbonaceous-materials/ Wed, 04 May 2022 16:15:00 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/new-method-to-obtain-biomass-from-porous-carbonaceous-materials/

A team of researchers from China and the UK has developed a new modified molten salt-based technique for obtaining porous carbonaceous materials from biomass, presenting a more practical method that can improve the commercial viability of molten salt-based processes. large-scale biomass. Their article is currently in the pre-proof of publication phase in the journal Acta Electrochemistry.

Study: Simplified obtaining of porous carbonaceous materials from the gifts of nature. Image Credit: Slothandhippo/Shutterstock.com

Production of carbon materials from biomass sources

The ecological challenges of the 21st century have drawn the attention of researchers to renewable technologies to meet the energy and industrial needs of modern society and to improve the sustainability of the modern world. The urgent need to stop exploiting fossil fuels and replace them with environmentally sustainable alternatives has become extremely evident over the past decades.

Among the various strategies proposed to meet the challenges of anthropogenic climate change, biomass has become an attractive option for energy production and value-added industrial products. The production of carbonaceous materials from this organic resource has become a focus of research in recent years due to the favorable properties of the materials and their inherent durability and circularity.

There are three critical challenges that must be addressed for the widespread use of biomass-derived carbonaceous materials to be achieved effectively. First, an inert atmosphere is required due to the limitations of biomass and derived materials. Second, the high residual metal ash content present in the biomass adversely impacts performance. Third, the range of applications of carbon materials is limited due to the dependence of their porous structure on raw materials.

Some strategies have been developed in recent years to overcome these limitations, including the optimization of purification processes and the engineering of the porous structures of the product. Carbonization processes are commonly carried out in nitrogen and argon gas atmospheres. These gases are used because of their inertness, but they are usually expensive and the carbonization process requires the use of complex equipment.

Harsh acids and solvents are typically used to remove metallic impurities, and chemical activation and physical activation processes are used to produce materials with larger surface areas and more abundant pore structures. However, all of these strategies further increase the complexity and cost of producing biomass-derived carbonaceous materials.

More importantly, the use of complex and harsh reactions in the preparation of these materials has a deleterious effect on their macroscopic morphology. This severely limits the production of commercially viable carbon products from biomass. The search for strategies to overcome these problems is currently a key area of ​​research.

The use of molten salt to produce carbonaceous materials from biomass is a potential strategy that overcomes the challenges of conventional methods of synthesizing these materials. Exploring this research question is central to the new study Acta electrochemistry.

The study

The researchers used a molten salt strategy to produce valuable carbonaceous materials from biomass sources. The rice paper plant has been used as a specific precursor biomass material in research. The technique is a one-step carbonization process that can produce value-added carbonaceous materials without the need for inert gases, which otherwise increases synthesis costs. Additionally, the process does not require acid etching, activation steps, or the use of harsh reaction conditions.

Molten salt techniques are attractive due to their low synthesis temperature, favorable flux environment, low vapor pressure, low oxygen/water solubility, and high ability to dissolve inorganic compounds such as metal oxides and ions. The use of molten salt holds great promise for facilitating easier production of carbonaceous materials from biomass.

Research has highlighted the role of molten salts in dissolving metallic impurities in biomass, which forms large particles that then clump together on the surface of carbonaceous materials. These agglomerated particles can then be removed by ultrasonic treatment.

To further demonstrate the practical applications of the prepared carbonaceous materials derived from biomass, the authors prepared lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors that used the materials. The results of these experiments demonstrated the superior performance of the prepared materials, attesting to the effectiveness of the proposed molten salt strategy.

The authors thoroughly studied the whole synthesis process and proposed that it is an optimal choice both for research purposes and for the industrial production of carbonaceous materials from biomass. The new synthetic strategy presented in the research has potential for applications in other energy conversion and storage technologies such as hydrogen storage and sensors, as well as other batteries and supercapacitors in addition to those studied in the article.

In summary, the authors presented the main results that will improve the cost, simplicity and efficiency of producing value-added carbon products from biomass sources. The paper has made a valuable contribution to the field of renewable energy collection and storage and offers several opportunities for future research.

More from AZoM: How is the fast Fourier transform used alongside electron microscopy?

Further reading

Zhang, Y et al. (2022) Simplified obtaining of porous carbonaceous materials from the gifts of nature Electrochimica Acta. 140486 [online, pre-proof] sciencedirect.com. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0013468622006454

Disclaimer: The views expressed herein are those of the author expressed privately and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T/A AZoNetwork, the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the terms of use of this website.

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Promising mRNA delivery method inspired by COVID-19 vaccines asks hearts to repair themselves after attack | The Weather Channel – Articles from The Weather Channel https://www.scientific-library.net/promising-mrna-delivery-method-inspired-by-covid-19-vaccines-asks-hearts-to-repair-themselves-after-attack-the-weather-channel-articles-from-the-weather-channel/ Tue, 03 May 2022 14:03:22 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/promising-mrna-delivery-method-inspired-by-covid-19-vaccines-asks-hearts-to-repair-themselves-after-attack-the-weather-channel-articles-from-the-weather-channel/

Representative picture

(IANS)

Inspired by COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine technology, researchers have developed a similar method to deliver genetic material to the body to repair damaged heart muscle after a heart attack.

COVID-19 mRNA vaccines use lipid nanoparticles, which are tiny droplets of fat, to deliver mRNA to cells in the body. This mRNA instructs cells to make a dummy spike protein on their surface to mimic the virus protein that causes COVID-19. The body then mounts an immune response by creating antibodies that can be used if the individual is infected with the virus.

However, instead of aiming for an immune response, researchers at the University Medical Center of Utrecht in the Netherlands sought to instruct cells in the heart to repair themselves after a heart attack.

This preliminary study was conducted to determine if mRNA could be successfully delivered to heart muscle in lipid nanoparticles.

In the study, researchers injected different formulations into the left ventricular wall of mouse hearts during open-chest surgery under general anesthesia. Twenty-four hours after administration, the mice were euthanized and the location of mRNA translation was examined.

Researchers found that mRNA successfully reached heart cells 24 hours after injection. However, despite injection into the heart, the highest levels of mRNA translation were found in liver and spleen cells.

“High expression was expected in the liver because it metabolizes lipid nanoparticles. Nevertheless, it was encouraging to see that there was translation of mRNA in heart tissue, which means that lipid nanoparticles could function as delivery systems for mRNA therapy,” said Dr. Clara Labonia. of the University.

“The next step in this research is to test more formulations and choose the one that most effectively targets heart tissue. We will then assess whether administering mRNA to mice with ischemic (heart attack-like) heart has a therapeutic effect,” they said. added.

The findings were presented to Frontiers of Cardiovascular Biomedicine 2022a scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology.

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The above article was published from a telegraphic source with minimal changes to the title and text.

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Global gonorrhea testing market to 2022 – by type, application, technology, method and region – Rowelto Associates Industry – themobility.club https://www.scientific-library.net/global-gonorrhea-testing-market-to-2022-by-type-application-technology-method-and-region-rowelto-associates-industry-themobility-club/ Tue, 03 May 2022 01:38:49 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/global-gonorrhea-testing-market-to-2022-by-type-application-technology-method-and-region-rowelto-associates-industry-themobility-club/

The Global Gonorrhea Testing Market Research Report 2022-2028 comprehensively studies the vital aspects of the competitive landscape, market dynamics, regional expansion, production, and consumption. The report provides information on key growth drivers, restraints, challenges, trends, and opportunities to offer a comprehensive analysis of the global Gonorrhea Testing Market. The report highlights opportunities and qualitative and quantitative analysis to help readers clearly understand the global market. Every trend in the global market is carefully analyzed and researched by market analysts. The report is a brilliant compilation of several significant studies of the competitive landscape of the global market.

The report analyst has covered almost all the key players in the global market. The study includes a discussion of significant market strategies, plans, market share growth, and product portfolios of key companies operating in the global Gonorrhea Testing Market. According to the report, top players maintain their supremacy in the global market by using powerful business tactics, pricing strategies, and other strategic moves. The report analyzes the nature and characteristics of the vendor landscape and includes accurate forecasts of key changes in market competition.

Get an exclusive free sample report – https://roweltoassociates.com/sample/22474

NOTE: COVID-19 is having a significant impact on businesses and the global economy, in addition to serious public health implications. As the pandemic continues to evolve, businesses are in serious need of rethinking and reconfiguring their work packages for the changed world. Many industries around the world have successfully implemented crisis-specific management plans. This report gives you a detailed study of the impact of COVID-19 on the Gonorrhea Testing Market so that you can develop your strategies.

Major Players included in the report like:-

Laboratories Abbott, Bayer, Merck, Agilent Technologies, Biomerieux, Danaher, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Alere, DiaSorin, Bristol-Myers Squibb, F. Hoffmann-La Roche

Scope of the Gonorrhea Testing Market Report

ATTRIBUTES DETAILS
FORECAST YEAR 2022-2028
YEAR OF REFERENCE 2021
SEGMENTS Types, applications, end users, and more.
BY TYPE Nucleic acid amplification (NAA), Gram stain, enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), gonorrhea culture, rapid test
ON DEMAND Hospitals, Pathology Lab, Point of Care Testing
COMPANIES COVERED Laboratories Abbott, Bayer, Merck, Agilent Technologies, Biomerieux, Danaher, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Alere, DiaSorin, Bristol-Myers Squibb, F. Hoffmann-La Roche
CUSTOMIZATION SCOPE Free report customization (equivalent to up to 4 analyst business days) with purchase. Added or modified the scope of the national and regional segment.

Gonorrhea Testing Market Segmentation:-

Based on type: –

  • Nucleic Acid Amplification (NAA)
  • Gram stain
  • Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)
  • Culture of gonorrhea
  • Quick test

Based on app:-

  • Hospitals
  • Pathology laboratory
  • Point-of-care testing

Get a full research study @ https://roweltoassociates.com/sample/22474

Regional analysis: –

The report provides information about the market area, which is sub-divided into sub-regions and countries. Besides market share in each country and sub-region, this chapter of this report also provides information on profit opportunity. This chapter of the report mentions the market share and growth rate of each region, country and sub-region over the estimated period.

  • North America (USA, Canada)
  • Europe (Germany, France, UK, Italy, Russia, Spain, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium)
  • Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam)
  • Middle East and Africa (Turkey, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, South Africa, Israel, Egypt, Nigeria)
  • Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Peru).

Reasons to Buy Report:

  • It gives a future perspective on unique aspects forcing or driving the growth of the Global Gonorrhea Testing Market.
  • This provides a forecast assessment (2021-2026) based on the expected market growth.
  • It helps in understanding the passionate segments of the market and their future.
  • This gives a detailed analysis of the competitions which allows you to stay ahead of the market.
  • It can help in making important business decisions with a complete insight into the market.

Direct purchase report @ https://roweltoassociates.com/checkout?reportId=22474&&usert=su

Some of the main highlights of TOC covers:

  • Chapter 1. Research Methodology and Data Sources
  • Chapter 2. Executive Summary
  • Chapter 3. Gonorrhea Testing Market: Industry Analysis
  • Chapter 4. Gonorrhea Testing Market: Product Overview
  • Chapter 5. Gonorrhea Testing Market: Application Information
  • Chapter 6. Gonorrhea Testing Market: Regional Overviews
  • Chapter 7. Gonorrhea Testing Market: Competitive Landscape

Company Profile

Rowelto provides high quality market research services at a great cost. We are a global leader in market research, able to reach as many countries as possible. We provide unique data collection services across various industries and ensure that our information is unique and objective. We have assembled a global research unit and advisors familiar with your role, business and industry.

Contact

Rowelto Partners
447 Sutter Street
Post 405 PMB 87
San Francisco, CA 94108
Say: +1-650-515-3443
Email: sales@roweltoassociates.com

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New Director for Louisiana Credit Union League, New Director for Emergent Method, Amedisys Promotion | Business https://www.scientific-library.net/new-director-for-louisiana-credit-union-league-new-director-for-emergent-method-amedisys-promotion-business/ Sun, 01 May 2022 05:15:00 +0000 https://www.scientific-library.net/new-director-for-louisiana-credit-union-league-new-director-for-emergent-method-amedisys-promotion-business/

Red Stick

Matt Rookard was named President and Chief Executive Officer of Louisiana Credit Union League.

Rookard replaces Bob Gallman, who retired in March after serving more than 40 years with the organization.

Rookard recently served as President and CEO of the Terrebonne Economic Development Authority. Previously, he was senior vice president of business development at GNO, Inc. and project manager at Louisiana Economic Development.

He earned a bachelor’s degree in business administration from Louisiana Tech University and is a graduate of the University of Oklahoma’s Economic Development Institute.

Karron Alford joined Emergent method As a manager.

Alford has over 20 years of experience in marketing, public relations and project management, including 15 years with Visit Baton Rouge.

She graduated from LSU.

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Nick Muscat was promoted to Chief Strategy Officer Amedisys.

Muscato has spent the past seven years with the home care and hospice company, most recently as senior vice president of finance.

New Orleans

ASM Global New Orleanswhich operates Caesars Superdome, Smoothie King Center and Champions Square, announces the following department heads:

Twice a day we’ll send you the day’s headlines. Register today.

Gustav Canazio was hired as director of programming. Canzio was previously tour manager at Live Nation, where he helped produce tours for Iron Maiden, Ozzy Osbourne and Post Malone.

Marc Waguespack was promoted to director of marketing. Waguespack, a native of New Orleans, has been with ASM for over eight years.

Caroline Guidry is a sales manager. Guidry has over 11 years of experience in the Southeast Louisiana hospitality industry, including some of the finest hotels in New Orleans.

ASM New Orleans has also hired Jessica Holtzman as head of event marketing and media, Tiana Watts as a graphic design and marketing specialist, Stephanie White as a premium seating supervisor and Catherine Murphy as a commercial account manager.

Elizabeth Tamporello joined The stone pig Walther Wittmann as special advice.

Tamporello joins Stone Pigman after several years specializing in insurance litigation and defense at another New Orleans firm.

She graduated magna cum laude from Tulane Law School, where she won the Moot Court Outstanding Board Member Award. As a law student, she articled for U.S. District Court Judge Jay Zainey.

Before embarking on her law practice, Tamporello was an opera singer, performing with the Houston Grand Opera Chorus and Opera in the Ozarks. She received a Bachelor of Music from Boston University and a Master of Music from the University of Houston.

John O. Hudson III was appointed Senior Vice President, Federal Policy, Regulation and Government Affairs for Entrance.

Hudson replaces Mike Twomey, who is retiring from Entergy after 20 years.

Prior to joining Entergy, Hudson served as President and CEO of Nicor ​​Gas Corp., Illinois’ largest gas distribution company. Previously, Hudson was executive vice president and director of external affairs at Southern Company Gas.

He earned a bachelor’s degree in political science from Alabama A&M University, a master’s degree in commerce from Georgia Tech Scheller College of Business, and a law degree from Miles College School of Law. He also completed the Executive Accounting and Finance Program at the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania and the Young American Leaders Program at Harvard Business School.

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